Correct fertilization increases not only the yield, but also the quality of the grapes – opinion


Correct fertilization increases not only the yield, but also the quality of the grapes – opinion

02.10.2020

The experience of winegrowers in the south of Ukraine shows that without the introduction of various fertilizers, table varieties give a poor harvest.

With the correct application of fertilizers, it is possible not only to increase the yield of table grapes, but also to improve the taste and presentation of the product. This opinion was expressed by the head of the laboratory of molecular genetics and plant protection of the National Scientific Center “Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking named after V.E. Tairova “(Odessa region, Ukraine) Lyudmila Baranets during the webinar” Classification of a group of fertilizers for feeding grapes ” writes EastFruit

The event was organized by the Ukrainian Horticultural Business Development Project (UHBDP).

As Ludmila Baranets noted, the experience of most winegrowers in the south of Ukraine shows that without timely nutrition, by applying various fertilizers, table grape varieties give a poor harvest. “Thus, the issue of feeding grapes is very topical,” the specialist emphasized.

Thanks to the application of fertilizers, according to Lyudmila Baranets, it is possible not only to increase the amount of the crop, but also to improve its quality. “The role of fertilizers is to fill a niche in plant nutrition, which, for various reasons, cannot be provided by the soil,” explained the head of the laboratory of molecular genetics and plant protection of the National Scientific Center “Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking named after V.E. Tairov “.

Lyudmila Baranets also noted that the classification system of fertilizers used in the cultivation of table grapes divides them into 4 main groups: organic, mineral fertilizers, growth stimulants and bacterial additives.

“Organic fertilizers include poultry manure, green manure, sawdust, straw, humus, ash, peat, compost. Their correct use increases the yield of grapes. Useful substances in organic matter decompose in the soil, releasing carbon dioxide. Regular soil cultivation with organic matter improves its physiological and biological parameters.

Each organic fertilizer can be beneficial if you follow the schedule of its application and take into account the dosage for use. For example, the autumn application of horse manure once every three years in an amount of 6-10 kg / m2. the area of ​​the site increases the quality of humus in the soil, provides the soil with microorganisms to increase the supply of nitrogen substances. Manure can be applied by mixing with ash. The effect of this type of fertilizer lasts 4-5 years ”, – explained the nuances of the technology Lyudmila Baranets.

The group of mineral fertilizers is subdivided into nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, copper, manganese, sulfur-containing.

According to the specialist, mineral fertilizers are used on grape plantations every 4-5 years. In the spring, it is usually superphosphate and potassium chloride in the amount of 50-60 g / m2.

“In general, fertilizers such as ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, urea, potassium salt or potassium sulfate are used when feeding grapes.

The active ingredient in ammonium nitrate and urea is nitrogen, which promotes the formation of young shoots and leaves and prepares the grapes for fruiting.

In turn, superphosphate is one of the main fertilizers for feeding grapes during the ripening period. This fertilization supports the plant’s root system and affects metabolism. Superphosphate is introduced in liquid form – the fertilizer granules are dissolved in hot water and poured under the root, ”said Lyudmila Baranets.

Potash fertilizers are responsible for the quality and size of the berries. “With a lack of potassium, the leaves of the grapes dry out, and the berries do not gain sugar, and besides, the grapes do not fully ripen – especially in regions where weather conditions interfere. The effect of using potash fertilizers increases when they are simultaneously applied with phosphorus fertilizers. Phosphorus-potassium fertilizers contain nitrogen and therefore it is worth feeding grapes with them in spring or early summer, and not in August, when, as a result of such feeding, the growth of new shoots will be stimulated, ”the specialist explained.

Also Lyudmila Baranets noted the effectiveness of grapes perception of growth stimulants. These include drugs such as heteroauxin, root, atonnik, isabion, amalgeron.

As for bacterial fertilizers, unlike organic and mineral fertilizers, they do not contain nutrients. “The main active ingredient of this group of fertilizers is beneficial soil microorganisms that enhance biochemical processes and improve plant root nutrition.

Beneficial bacteria are multiplied in industrial conditions and produced in the form of peat mass, powders and suspensions, ”stressed Lyudmila Baranets, adding that one of the most effective such drugs is Baikal, which contains more than 80 unique strains of microorganisms.

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